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# What are the differences between the open-circuit voltage and the working voltage of Panasonic batteries?

When the conductor of Panasonic battery is connected externally, the electrochemical reaction between the positive and negative electrodes takes place spontaneously. If the energy conversion between the positive and the negative electrodes reaches equilibrium, the difference between the positive and negative electrodes is the electromotive force of the battery, which is equal to the open circuit voltage when it reaches a stable value. The product of the electromotive force and the unit electric quantity represents the maximum electric work that can be done per unit electric quantity. However, the meaning of the battery electromotive heat is different from that of the open circuit voltage: the electromotive force can be calculated by thermodynamics or by measurement according to the reaction in the battery, which has a clear physical meaning. The latter is numerically close to the electromotive force, depending on the reversibility of the battery.

The terminal voltage of Panasonic battery in open circuit state is called open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage of the battery is equal to the difference between the positive electrode potential and the negative electrode potential.

Battery operating voltage refers to the terminal voltage at which the current of the battery passes through (closed circuit). The initial operating voltage of battery discharge is called the initial voltage. The operating voltage of Panasonic battery is lower than the open circuit voltage due to the existence of ohmic resistance and polarization overpotential.

First of all, we need to know that the terminal voltage of Panasonic battery in open circuit state is called open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage of the battery is equal to the difference between the positive electrode potential and the negative electrode potential.

Secondly, when the conductor of Panasonic battery is connected externally, the electrochemical reaction between the positive and negative electrodes takes place spontaneously. If the energy conversion between the positive and the negative electrodes reaches equilibrium, the difference between the potential of the positive and the potential of the negative electrodes is the electromotive force of the battery, which is equal in value to the open circuit voltage when it reaches a stable value. The product of the electromotive force and the unit electric quantity represents the maximum electric work that can be done per unit electric quantity. However, the meaning of the battery electromotive heat is different from that of the open circuit voltage: the electromotive force can be calculated by thermodynamics or by measurement according to the reaction in the battery, which has a clear physical meaning. The latter is numerically close to the electromotive force, depending on the reversibility of the battery.

Finally, the operating voltage of the battery is the terminal voltage through which the current of the battery passes (closed circuit). The initial operating voltage of battery discharge is called the initial voltage. The operating voltage of Panasonic battery is lower than the open circuit voltage due to the existence of ohmic resistance and polarization overpotential.
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