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What causes the polarization of Panasonic battery?

Panasonic battery is a kind of common battery product in our life. Do you know what causes the polarization of Panasonic battery in the use process? Here is a detailed introduction:
The polarization formed by the resistance of each part of Panasonic battery is called ohmic polarization;
Concentration difference over potential of Panasonic battery:
In the process of electrolysis, due to the reaction of active ions near the electrode surface, the back EMF caused by the difference of surface concentration and solution phase concentration is called concentration difference overemf
Electrochemical overpotential of Panasonic battery
Because some of the active ions participating in the electrode reaction lack enough energy to complete the conversion of electricity and mass, it is necessary to increase the electrode current. This part of the increased potential is called the activation overpotential. It is related to the activation energy of one of the slowest steps in the electrode reaction,
Overpotential of Panasonic battery resistance:
When the current passes through the two poles, a thin layer of high resistance oxide film or other material film is often formed on the surface of the electrode or the interface between the electrode and the solution, resulting in the surface resistance potential drop, which is called resistance overpotential. This situation is not of general significance, so we only discuss concentration polarization and electrochemical polarization
The polarization of Panasonic battery formed by the retardation of charge transfer process in the electrode electrolyte interface layer is called activation polarization;
There are electrochemical polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization. The three polarization phenomena are all variable in dynamic state. The polarization of lead-acid battery is caused by many reasons, but it can be solved by taking measures, such as the electrochemical polarization is mainly caused by water loss and heating; ohmic polarization is closely related to the charging and discharging current; concentration polarization is related to temperature and different charging stages, but also related to water loss, and the proportion of electrolyte water is reduced, which is bound to increase the concentration and increase the polarization. In addition, the electrolyte will be deposited for a long time, the concentration below will increase, the concentration above will gradually decrease, the concentration above and below will differentiate, and there will also be concentration polarization.
The polarization formed by the slow mass transfer process in the electrode electrolyte interface layer of Panasonic battery is called concentration polarization. The way to reduce polarization is to increase the electrode response area, reduce the current density, increase the response temperature and improve the catalytic activity of the electrode surface.
The difference between the electrode potential before and after power on is called over potential difference. The equilibrium electrode potential is a static and relatively ideal electrode potential when there is no current flowing through it. Cell polarization is the phenomenon that the actual electrode potential deviates from the equilibrium electrode potential after breaking the static state due to the current flow. The electrode polarization generated by anode current is called anode polarization; the electrode polarization generated by cathode current is called cathode polarization. The larger the current passing through the electrode unit area, the more serious the deviation from the equilibrium electrode potential. For example, iron is rusty because there are impurities (usually C) in iron. In the electrolyte solution, iron will be used as the negative electrode, while carbon as the positive electrode, which accelerates the corrosion of iron.

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